Diabetes is a metabolic disorder that can be of two major types—I and II. Sometimes, a high glucose level might go undetected or have a similar manifestation as that of pre-diabetes. To know whether one is suffering from it, there are some screening processes.
When suffering from diabetes, the glucose level in the blood gradually goes up. The glucose supplies energy to the distinct body part by traveling through the bloodstream. If the glucose up-taking, functioning or the insulin level gets depleted it leads to a rise in blood sugar level.
Herein, some of the diagnostic measures and their interpretation will be discussed in detail.
- A1C test
This test is used to detect every type of diabetes. It indicates the glucose level present in the blood for the past few months. The blood samples are taken without the person having to fast prior to the test. The percentage of the sugar residues attached to the hemoglobin is measured. The hemoglobin carries oxygen to distinct body cells.
In this test, if a patient is detected with an A1C level that exceeds the limit of 6.5% then the patient is suffering from diabetes. An A1C below 5.7 then the patient does not have high glucose levels. The A1C test report with test result ranging from 5.7%-6.4% can be an indication of pre-diabetes.
The AIC can be inaccurate in particular conditions such as pregnancy and hemoglobin variance.
- Random sugar test
In this test, the blood sample that is taken at random times regardless of your fasting and eating conditions. If the blood sample detects for the presence of more than 2000mg/dL of sugar is regarded to have diabetes.
The risk of having a high blood sugar level in the gestation period is generally determined by testing the mother during their third trimester.
- Fasting sugar test
In this test, the doctors recommend one to give blood samples after overnight fasting. From the sample, the sugar level is generally calculated which should be generally lower than 100mg/dL. If the test results show that the level is in between 100 and 125 mg/dL then they are considered to have pre-diabetes. Lastly, if the blood sugar level is 126mg/dl in both successive tests, then the case of diabetes is confirmed.
- Oral tolerance test for glucose
In this test, the sugar level is first measured in the fasting condition. Then the patient is allowed to test the glucose level after drinking a sugar solution. Following this, the sugar level in the blood is examined periodically.
The results that have a sugar level of less than 140 mg/dL suggest that the sugar level is normal. The reading over 200mg/dL indicates that the patient is suffering from high blood sugar. The reading that ranges between 140-199 mg/dL indicated that the patient is suffering from pre-diabetes.
- Urine test
In case the patient is suffering from type I diabetes, doctors may recommend the patient to have a urine test. The byproducts are looked for in the urine as an insufficient supply of glucose leads to the utilization of fats and muscle to derive energy. The auto-antibodies may be tested in such an individual.
Thus, these are the most common test doctors recommend after a patient is suspected of diabetes.